For some individuals, even minor joint and muscular discomfort can make bedtime challenging. This specialized neuromuscular formulation features a
select combination of botanical extracts traditionally used for calming, relaxation, and occasional sleeplessness complemented by bioavailable minerals
that influence muscular contraction and relaxation. The combination of ingredients in Muscle Relax has yielded positive clinical results in similar products.*
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root has enjoyed broad historical applications, including for muscle pain and spasms, nervousness, stress, and
occasional sleeplessness. Its effects can be attributed to its calming and soothing influence on the nervous system.[1-3] Among the root’s more than
150 possibly synergistic constituents, perhaps the most well understood are the valepotriates and valerenic acid. Valerenic acid binds to gammaaminobutyric
acid (GABA) receptors in the central nervous system, which produces a calming effect.[3,4] GABA is the primary neurotransmitter
involved in increasing the production of alpha waves (associated with a relaxed, yet mentally focused state) while decreasing beta waves (related
to hyperactivity, nervousness, and fleeting thoughts). Valerian also shows effects on receptors for melatonin, the hormone that regulates the body’s
Passion Flower Extract
Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata) has a long history of traditional use for its calming and relaxing properties, and early evidence from both
animal studies and human trials support these uses.[7-11] The flavonoids in passion flower generate activity at the brain’s receptors for GABA and
benzodiazepines, which theoretically contribute to the calming and restful effects.*
Hops are the female seed cones of the hop species Humulus lupulus, a medicinal plant used for a variety of purposes, including calming and
relaxation. Although minimal evidence supports hops as a monotherapy, studies combining hops with valerian[6,12] and hops with valerian plus
passion flower have shown a modest improvement of sleep measures. In a 14-day randomized controlled trial (n = 91), a combination of hops
extract (30 mg), valerian extract (300 mg), and passion flower extract (80 mg) taken at bedtime increased total duration of sleep, decreased nighttime
awakenings, and reduced sleep latency.*
Sour Cherry Powder
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) is known to be rich in anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds. Data also suggest that sour cherry naturally contains
melatonin, which is critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Several preliminary studies have also suggested sour cherry juice or freeze-dried
concentrate may ease post-exercise muscle soreness.*[15-17]
Magnesium (TRAACS® magnesium bisglycinate chelate and magnesium taurate) Magnesium is provided as patented Albion® TRAACS® bisglycinate
chelate comprised of magnesium bound to amino acids to create a chelate plus magnesium taurate. TRAACS chelates appear to be more readily
absorbed through the intestinal mucosa than other mineral forms making an excellent delivery system for magnesium.*
As a cofactor for over 300 enzyme pathways, magnesium has a multitude of actions including a calming effect on the nervous system and the
regulation of muscle contraction, which have both been demonstrated in animal and human studies.[19,20] Magnesium affects permeability of excitable
membranes and thereby acts as a “gatekeeper” to excitatory neurotransmitters. In addition to interacting with the GABA receptor, magnesium
plays a role in the inhibition of the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and thus promotes restfulness.*[21,22]
Potassium (Albion® potassium glycinate complex)
Potassium is the most abundant intracellular electrolyte found in the body and is important for many functions, including muscle contraction and
nerve impulse transmission.*
Calcium carbonate is an excipient used in Muscle Relax as a densifier. When present at greater than 2% of the Daily Value, calcium must be
declared on a label. Although calcium carbonate is not intended to contribute to the formula’s function, this excipient provides elemental calcium
which plays a role in nerve transmission so that muscles and nerves function properly.*
1. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, et al. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1005-12. [PMID: 17145239]
2. Fernández-San-Martín MI, Masa-Font R, Palacios-Soler L, et al. Effectiveness of Valerian on insomnia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Sleep Med. 2010
Jun;11(6):505-11. [PMID: 20347389]
3. Hudson T. Valerian: A sleep aid and anxiolytic. Plant Intelligence Professional Resources. https://www.gaiaherbs.com/uploads/A_Research_Review_of_Valerian-1371566791.pdf.
Accessed August 9, 2018.
4. Benke D, Barberis A, Kopp S, et al. GABA A receptors as in vivo substrate for the anxiolytic action of valerenic acid, a major constituent of valerian root extracts. Neuropharmacology.
2009 Jan;56(1):174-81. [PMID: 18602406]
5. Sarris J, Panossian A, Schweitzer I, et al. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol.
6. Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, et al. Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Jul;17(1):65-71.
7. Ingale AG, Hivrale AU. Pharmacological studies of Passiflora sp. and their bioactive compounds. African Journal of Plant Science. 2010 Oct 31;4(10):417-26. doi:10.1007/s00216-016-
8. Barbosa PR, Valvassori SS, Bordignon CL Jr, et al. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in
rats. J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):282-8. [PMID: 18598170]
9. Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BGO (2007). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 24: 1, CD004518.
10. Reginatto FH, De-Paris F, Petry RD, et al. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of spray dried powders of two South Brazilian Passiflora species. Phytother Res. 2006 May;20(5):348-51.
11. Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Antiasthmatic activity of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata. Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):821-2. [PMID:12916087]
12. Morin CM, Koetter U, Bastien C, et al. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep. 2005
Nov;28(11):1465-71. [PMID: 16335333]
13. Maroo N, Hazra A, Das T. Efficacy and safety of a polyherbal sedative-hypnotic formulation NSF-3 in primary insomnia in comparison to zolpidem: a randomized controlled trial. Indian
J Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Feb;45(1):34-9. [PMID: 23543804]
14. Howatson G, Bell PG, Tallent J, et al. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Dec;51(8):909-16. [PMID:
15. Kuehl KS, Perrier ET, Elliot DL, Chesnutt JC. Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 May 7;7:17.
16. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int
Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 May 26;13:22. [PMID: 27231439]
17. Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, et al. The effects of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients. 2016
Jul 22;8(7). [PMID: 27455316]
18. Albion Minerals. http://www.albionminerals.com/human-nutrition/products-trade/quality/traacs-ft-ir. Accessed August 9, 2018.
19. Laires MJ, Monteiro CP, Bicho M. Role of cellular magnesium in health and human disease. Front Biosci. 2004 Jan 1;9:262-76. [PMID: 14766364]
20. Long S, Romani AM. Role of Cellular Magnesium in Human Diseases. Austin J Nutr Food Sci. 2014 Nov 18;2(10). [PMID: 25839058]
21. Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality
sleep. Magnes Res. 2010 Dec;23(4):158-68. [PMID: 21199787]
22. Papadopol V, Nechifor M. Magnesium in neuroses and neuroticism. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, editors. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Adelaide (AU): University of
Adelaide Press; 2011. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507254/ [PMID: 29920008]
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.